Scientific literature related to MAT

Literature by Sanquin authors

An improved monocyte activation test using cryopreserved pooled human mononuclear cells.

S. Solati, L. Aarden, S. Zeerleder, D. Wouters. Innate Immunity (2015), vol 21, p667-684

. . . We conclude that the MAT, using frozen pooled PBMCs and IL-6 detection, is a highly sensitive, specific and reproducible pyrogen test that is able to detect and quantify endotoxin and non-endotoxin pyrogenic contaminations in parenteral pharmaceuticals, and replace the RPT.. . .


Cytokine induction by pyrogens: Comparison of whole blood, mononuclear cells, and TLR-transfectants

R. Kikkert, E.R. de Groot, L. Aarden. Journal of Immunological Methods (2008), vol 336, p45–55

. . . After stimulation (16–20 h) of cells, supernatants were harvested and stored at −20 °C until assayed. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF were determined by ELISA kits (PeliKine-compact, Sanquin Reagents, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). . . . we confirm that IL-6 is to be preferred over IL-1β and TNF as readout for MNC cytokine production. . . we are confident that our results will give an incentive to the area of pyrogen testing and will contribute to the ongoing discussion on alternative pyrogen testing using the monocyte activation test. . .


Sensitive ELISA for interleukin-6: Detection of IL-6 in biological fluids: synovial fluids and sera.

M.L. Helle, L. Boeije, E. de Groot, A. de Vos, L. Aarden. Journal of Immunological methods (1991), vol 138, p47-56

. . . A monoclonal antibody and an affinity purified polyclonal antibody, both raised against recombinant human IL-6, have been employed in an ELISA procedure to quantitate human IL-6. . .

Other interesting reads


Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) in the Quality Control of the 17DD Yellow Fever Vaccine.

Katherine Antunes de Mattos, ATLA vol 46, (2018), 23–37

. . . The quantitative analysis demonstrated the correlation between the MAT and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assays, ...


Investigation of the kinetics and mechanism of low endotoxin recovery (LER) in a matrix for biopharmaceutical drug products.

Johannes Reich et al. Biologicals, vol 53, (May 2018), 1-9

. . . Our work provides for the first time a model to simulate masking kinetics of endotoxin which lends a better understanding of LER. . .


Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for hyperimmune sera in the routine of the quality control laboratory: Comparison with the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT).

C.C. da Silva, O.A.F. Presgrave, T.Hartung, A.M. Lage de Moraes, I. Fernandes Delgado, Toxicology in Vitro, vol 32 (2016) 70–75

. . . These results show that MAT may replace the use of rabbits in pyrogen tests of HS . . .


Cryopreservation of human monocytes for pharmacopeial monocyte activation test.

P. Bruegger, Journal of Immunological Methods, vol 405 (2014) 181–191

. . . So far the MAT is the best alternative method to the rabbit pyrogen test to detect both, endotoxin and non-endotoxin pyrogens . . .